The Patient Gateway is a multi-function unit based on a tablet computer, located near the patient.
The Lifeguard Server is the back-end IT system that collects patient data from multiple Gateways.
A class IIa CE marked medical device, the PSE uses unobtrusive, wearable sensors to acquire real time vital sign data with high accuracy and resolution. Vital signs currently captured include heart rate, respiration rate, on-demand ECG, R-R intervals, oxygen saturation, on-demand PPG, temperature and blood pressure. Unlike standard bedside monitoring equipment, the PSE is completely wireless, freeing patients and staff from the tyranny of cables and leads, and may be used on patients both in hospital and at home.
The PSE “digitises the patient” and automatically uploads the continuous “obs” data to a patient record, simply, securely and at low cost.
Patients’ data is aggregated into a dashboard that may be viewed at any central point, or on any authorised mobile device such as a smart phone or tablet. The inherently digital data may be used in real time to provide early warning scores or other predictive indicators, or used offline to develop new predictive algorithms and data-driven physiological bio-markers. By providing a continuous measure of the patient’s physiological status, the PSE brings the patient to the centre of care and provides an invaluable and robust record of the patient’s journey both in the hospital and at home.
In this document we:
Monitoring vital signs including blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, heart rate, temperature and oxygen saturation, is a crucial aspect of patient care. Vital signs indicate a patient’s clinical condition and are necessary to calculate early warning scores which are used to determine the monitoring, escalation and interventions that are subsequently required.
This paper is part of a series of reports developed to support providers and commissioners who are making decisions about methods and systems to continuously monitor patients on various pathways; who would like to improve patient safety, reduce patient deterioration and would like to ease the pressures and daily burdens on the workforce in their hospitals.
It will also aid healthcare professionals who would like to move care currently provided in acute hospitals to community-based settings and discuss the importance of being able to proactively monitor and care for patients beyond the walls of a hospital or health system.
The Patient Status Engine collects and analyses patients’ vital signs and provides early warning scores and data analytics to flag up any changes in a patient's condition - alerting clinicians to what could be the early onset of Sepsis
Patient area network
(the Patient Digitisation Engine)
The PDE can be used in a stand-alone mode as a patient monitor that provides real-time, automatically generated patient charts at the bedside, or it may be integrated into the hospital or out-of-hospital network.
The Lifeguard Server provides remote patient dashboards and real-time charts that may be viewed anywhere on the network, or externally via VPN access in accordance with the provider’s data security and governance requirements.
Gateways use either 3G/4G cellular or Wi-Fi and broadband to connect to the Lifeguard Server. In this configuration, the PSE may be directly connected to a hospital electronic medical records system and/or accessed through a secure portal on the internet, providing real-time patient data to any authorised device, anytime, anywhere.
The PSE has been designed to be robust against wireless connectivity interference or failure and out-of-range situations. All wireless links from the sensor devices to the Gateway and from the Gateway to the Lifeguard Server are fully encrypted and all data transfers are fully acknowledged. Data is held at each network node until confirmation of receipt is provided.
For example, in the event of the patient moving out of range of the Gateway, the Lifetouch and Lifetemp sensors hold their data until connectivity is re-established and the data is automatically downloaded. Accurate time-stamping and tagging of each heartbeat and temperature measurement ensure precise synchronisation of data streams in the network. Similarly, if connectivity between the Gateway and Lifeguard Server is lost, data is held in the Gateway until the connectivity is re-established and the data is synchronised and uploaded to the Lifeguard Server.